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  • Single Layer, Multiple Layer MCPCB or FR4
  • Surface mounted components / wave soldering
  • Solder mask coloring
  • Machined features
  • Low / High volume
  • Turn key operation
  • Quick lead time / turn around
  • Testing
  • Cables / Connectors



    Reflective COB for LED TV

    - Better thermal dissipation
    • Brighter LEDs = Less LEDs ($)
    - Lower Temperature
    • Optimize efficiency
    • Ensure LED life time


    High Brightness LEDs

    • Consume more power
    • Generate more heat


    • With stands adverse climate conditions
    • Strength against heat if combined with Solar Panel

    COB & Pillar MCPCB

    - Efficient thermal heat dissipation
    • Maintains performance under all climate conditions
    - Thinner and more flexible
    • Enable high LED density

    Utilizing LEDs in general lighting applications is becoming more and more popular especially in new constructed facilities. LEDs offer many advantages over tradition fluorescent light applications, including reduced safety considerations, dimming controls, energy conservation, and longer life. Fluorescent light bulbs are typically powered by high voltage AC, which can be a fire hazard and are required to meet stringent safety considerations while LEDs run on low voltage DC which is considered safer. LED lighting can be designed for dimming and even allow for controls on inter-changing color output, where fluorescent lights typically only have one brightness and one color setting, on or off. The high efficiency operation of LEDs will reduce energy consumption by more than 70%, saving a lot of money on energy bills. The fluorescent bulbs must be continually replaced while LEDs offer extremely long life operations in excess of 100,000 hours or 10 years, making LED lighting a very attractive cost-saving lighting solution for building owners.

    Outdoor lighting installations already use low voltage transformers to overcome safety issues; however, they typically use low-reliability light bulbs that only allow one color and / or brightness and do not offer great energy efficiency. LEDs are becoming more popular due to a wide range of color and brightness options as well as their high efficiency / low-energy consumption. Many outdoor lights now have built in solar panels, allowing them to run independently without any use of e-wire connections or external power sources. The low-energy consumption of LEDs make them particularly attractive in these applications, enabling longer operation from each solar charge reducing the size of the solar panel and battery storage devices in each lighting fixture. Our Metal Core PCB concurrent engineering and manufacturing services combined with our SMTA services enable these lighting fixture manufacturers to order one assembly designed to fit the enclosure of respective design, knowing that it is designed and manufactured with the right components and circuitry to withstand the rigors of outdoor conditions around the environment.

    Manufacturers utilize machines to inspect their products for quality and consistency. LEDs offer smaller size, better control of the light spectrum, and longer life operation compared to all other traditional light sources. Traditional light sources have a wide variance of light spectrum, resulting in less accurate measurement of product attributes. LEDs improve accuracy while fitting into smaller spaces and requiring far less maintenance and repair. Our Metal Core PCB designs allow these lighting assemblies to be installed into manufacturing equipment that may be operating at extremely high temperatures to accommodate required manufacturing processes.

    Many of today's automobiles are taking steps to use LEDs to expand their ability to deliver higher brightness within smaller spaces and a high level of color controls to improve the driver's visibility. These high-brightness LED assemblies must withstand a wide range of temperature and mechanical vibration. Metal Core PCB construction enable the PCB to be mounted directly to the surrounding light assembly for greater resistance to shock and vibration while dissipating the generated heat through the light's enclosure. In today's vehicles, the reduced energy consumption of LEDs is only one of many components to reduce electricity consumption within the car without sacrificing lighting required for best visibility.

    The process of converting energy from the power source into the voltage required to run the electronic circuits generates great amount of heat. Traditional cooling methods require fans to blow cooler air over the power conversion circuits; however, in many applications, airflow may not be possible, requiring the power conversion circuits to conduct their heat through a base-plate. Metal Core PCB technologies enable engineers to tie the power magnet directly to the PCB to draw heat away from these sensitive circuits. This approach has grown very popular in high-density DC-to-DC converter products and other power systems that are utilized in military and telecommunication devices, where airflow is not available.

    High reliability applications utilized in military applications and commercial aircraft which cannot make use of traditional "air cooling" methods as airflow is only a consideration up to 10,000 feet in altitude. Once the altitude is higher than 10,000 feet, the air gets too thin to provide reliable cooling capacity. For this reason, these types of applications require the conduction cooling that only Metal Core PCB technologies can offer. Our Metal Core PCB concurrent engineering and manufacturing services combined with our SMTA services enable the manufacturers of today's military and aerospace equipment to order a complete assembly designed to fit their specifications with the knowledge of correct component selection and circuitry to withstand the shock, vibration, and wide temperature ranges required on such types of applications.

    Motor control devices are often embedded deep within machinery that cannot be accessed easily, meaning traditional cooling methods are often less than ideal. Airflow may not be an option at all or difficult to implement at the final destination of these types of circuits. For this reason, most motion control devices are designed for self-cooled operation and require the conductive heat dissipation that only Metal Core PCB technologies can offer. Our Metal Core PCB concurrent engineering and manufacturing services combined with our SMTA services enable the manufacturers of today's motion devices to order one complete assembly designed to their specifications with the knowledge of right component selection and circuitry to withstand the shock, vibration, and wide temperature ranges required in today's motion applications.
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MCPCB Benefits

  • Components operate at lower temperatures
  • Durable
  • Flatness maintained in all 3 layers
  • High Heat Dissipation
  • High density of components
  • Reduced PCB size / Small footprint
  • Higher Watt Density
  • Longer component life
  • Less hardware (topical heat sinks, screws, clips, etc)
  • Lower Manufacturing Cost

Services We Offer

  • Excellent customer service
  • Low-cost
  • Rapid prototyping
  • Complete thermal analysis / design
  • Custom heat sinks
  • Mechanical design
  • Circuit / Electrical design

Service and Leadtimes

- Prototype
  • 1-4 panels
  • 3 days, 5 days and 7 days quick turns
  • 7 days standard delivery
  • 18"x 24"panel size
- Production
  • 4 + panels
  • 2 weeks standard delivery
  • KANBAN or Stocking programs available
  • Multiple panel sizes
- Material of MCPCB
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Thermo Conductive Pillar for Modular LED Array
Out of over 50 projects we have done in the past, Cofan obatained 16 patents for MCPCB technology. This is an example of how we work in order to achieve the best quality products from Cofan. We know exactly what MCPCB technology is and this experiment is not the end and we will continue to create better solutions for the market in the future.
What technological advancements were we trying to achieve?
The technological objective of this project was to develop a new LED module for high luminous efficacy.
Historically, the state of the art in MCPCB based LED technology consisted of a metal core base layer, covered with a dielectric layer (where the circuit is formed). Wires re manually soldered to the traces to achieve operational conductivity. The thermal conductive pillar for the LED modular array will improve efficiency and cross-platform design. With the current technology resistance arcing acts a limiting factor as high current LED drivers require 1500V (3 second interval). The dielectric layer limits the circuit due to the barrier it creates between the two layers establishing a thermal conductivity of 200W/K*m. Additionally, significant portions of light is typically reflected by the surface of the waveguide and is absorbed and scattered by substrate as the dielectric layer, the electrode pads and wires covering the substrate have very low reflectivity limiting the luminous efficiency to 60 Lumens/W.

To overcome these constraints, Cofan sought to develop the following:

- New thermal management technologies in Metal Core Printed Circuit Board (MCPCB) capable of achieving a conductivity of 320 W/m-K. This new module technology would withstand a 1500V exposure for a period of 3 seconds.

- Integrate the new LED module with top reflective surface layer with a waveguide structure to improve luminous efficiency to 90 Lumens/W wit new technology to combine metal core technology with an aluminum reflective panel.

However, this proved to be challenging as increasing the conductivity required the removal of burr induced conducing tracts formed through the mechanical forces present through drilling. For this reason Cofan needed to redevelop a method to form the necessary etched cavities. Additionally, Cofan encountered challenged in the new module with the top reflective surface as Cofan was uncertain of the optimal bonding procedure involving the pre-impregnated glass fiber material with two sandwiching layers, total of three layers, as Cofan had never bonded more than two layers.

If successful, this technology could be applied to light-emitting diodes (LED) lighting mounted on a surface module, maintaining high thermal conductivity while performing in a high current driver application. Cofan seeks to develop a module that can essentially be handled as a plug-and-play LED device while increasing the lumen output the overall efficiency and applicability increase drastically.

Through this project Cofan advanced their scientific knowledge in the field of electrical engineering by developing a LED module to improve the thermal conductivity, luminous efficiency and the technology of the MCPCB to effectively withstanding a 1500V exposure for 3 second duration and sought to improve luminous efficacy to upwards of 90+Lumens/W.

What technological obstacles did we have to overcome?
The technological obstacles encountered in the fiscal year, revolved around developing a high current driver, high luminous efficacy LED module combining new Metal Core PCB heat dissipationo technologies with a new aluminum reflective panel integrated with the Metal Core PCB.
Specifically, Cofan encountered the following technological obstacles in the fiscal year:

Dielectric strength (resistance to arcing) and consistency of epoxy flow
- Cofan needed to alter the drilling process when forming small cavities intended for current insulation to prevent the formation of undesirables conducting tracts. Initial attempts of using a drilling process resulted in the development of copper burrs which essentially created conducting tracts, which compromised dielectric strength; due to the substantial mechanical forces and over-stressing yields displaced on the copper plating which was present during this operation.

Voids in the substrate layer and lamination impacts
- Cofan needed to establish a correlation between the change in Cu and the PCB edge distance relative to the BDV in the air, to actively prevent the failures due to voids in the non-conductive epoxy resin. Initial attempts using a chemical etching process resulted in the formation of unpredictable voids forming within the epoxy which decreased the dielectric strength significantly.

Optimal cavit profile for epoxy resin flow
- Cofan was uncertain of the optimal size and shape of the cavities required to allow for consistent resin flow to minimize voiding. As such, experimentation with various pocket sizes within the cavity was required to allow for consistent resin flow to minimize voiding. As such, experimentation with various pocket sizes within the cavity was required to improve the initial flow of the epoxy resin and thereby preventing formation of voids and air bubbles. The initial cavity pocket size of 0.109” failed to allow the epoxy to initially flow into the barrel and prevent voids.

LED reflective panel to improve luminous efficacy
- Cofan was uncertain how the mechanical processes to form the reflective panel and the distortions in the panel would impact the laminate adhesion as well as the overall luminous efficacy of the assembled module. Initial attempts using the reflective panel resulted in yield rates below 50% due to leakage of pre-impregnated glass fiber material into the LED pocket, resulting in contamination.

What work did we perform in last year to overcome those technological obstacles?
Dielectric strength (resistance o arcing) and consistency of epoxy flow

Initially Cofan theorized, utilizing a drilling process to maintain material properties by avoiding substantial mechanical forces and stresses preventing the formation unwanted conductor tracts. To do so Cofan experimented by drilling small cavity hole for the current insulation on the copper trace. However, with this process, Cofan observed that there was a strong presence of copper burs which compromised the dielectric strength resulting in the circuit unable to withstand resistive arcing at/exceeding 1500V for the duration of 3 seconds. In attempts to resolve this issue and inherently minimize the probability of resistance arcing, Cofan hypothesized that a chemical process would reduce the level of induced stress and deformation (through a cold process) in order to maintain the original properties while preventing the formation of burs. A hydrochloric acid and copper sulphate based formulation was experimented with as an etching solution; the chemical was intended to remove the copper silvers quickly to ensure no damage occurs to the copper base. Testing this theory Cofan immersed the copper board into the solution. Cofan observed a buildup of cupric chloride, where the disproportional reaction took over cuprous chloride. With this strategy, Cofan observed improved consistency with the high-pot tests.

Voids in the substrate layer and lamination impacts
However, with this new etching strategy Cofan also observed higher failure rates as unpredictable voids began to form on the epoxy resin, compromising the dielectric strength of the trace. Cofan performed further testing to develop a correlation between the change in Cu and he PCB edge distance relative to the BDV in the air, bounding the distance between 1mm-5mm. A series of 6 distances with 1mm increments and 1.5mm were tested, analysis of the results showed that distance between the Cu and PCB edge relative to the BDV (kV) had a linear correlation exhibiting potential optimal distances for curing of the epoxy based on a resin thickness of 200VDC/mm.

Through further experimentation Cofan identified the difficulty was arising due to the application process of the non-conductive epoxy into the insulation cavity as it contained a copper base contamination. Cofan observed the cavity barrels were too deep to avoid the air trap at a base thickness of 0.125”. To overcome this team experimented by securing the epoxy inside the barrel and implementing a vacuum bed effectively descend the epoxy resin to the base, during the screening process. Experimentations showed improvements in yield however, results were still considered poor as the failure rate was measured to be 25% alongside a lack of consistency. Upon further inspection Cofan was able to correlate the failure to the high degree of viscosity of the epoxy. To resolve this, Cofan experimented with the use of pre-treatment methods which enhanced the lamination by forming an oxide layer, increasing bond strength within the copper base, Using black oxide Cofan converted the surface of the material to magnetite(Fe3O4) which offered sufficient corrosion resistance. Testing this pre-treatment Cofan applied oxide layer on a single side of the copper base. Cofan performed a sequential process comprising of pre-clean,, water rinse, micro-etching, water rinse, black oxidation process, water rinse and finally a 60 degree baking process. Cofan experienced positive results as the pre-treatment increased the bond strength to an optimal degree, however, the epoxy still continued to form voids.

Optimal cavity profile for epoxy resin flow
Cofan hypothesized that by altering the pocket shape of the cavity; this would improve the initial flow for the epoxy resin and prevent the voiding defects. This was to be achieved by increasing the distance between the electrode’s hole and base. Testing this theory Cofan experimented with two types of cavity, a conical countersink and a larger cylindrical. Cofan found the larger cylindrical barrel opening to work more optimally in comparison to the conical countersink as the larger opening allowed the epoxy to flow more consistently due to the higher viscosity.

LED reflective panel to improve luminous efficacy
In parallel, Cofan attempted to develop a top reflective surface layer with a waveguide structure to increase the luminous efficacy. Cofan hypothesized that by dividing the pre-impregnated glass fiber material into two sections with varying curing stages, half cured (B stage) and fully cured(C stage), this would eliminate resin starvation when bonding to a third surface. Testing this theory Cofan experimented with different section thickness and cure stages to achieve the optimal lamination strength with the metal core layer. Through experimentation Cofan observed optimally a layer of thickness 0.006” required two 0.003” sections in which the fiber material attached to the copper foil is in the C stage and the other section in B stage is layered above it prior to the mechanical punching(to form the pocket). Following this Cofan interlaid the aluminum reflective panel and pressed both components together without resin starvation resulting in delaminating. However, during the pressing process Cofan observed resin flowing into and contaminating the LED cavity.

Cofan theorized modifying the resin placement further from the cavity to account for the resin flow characteristics. Testing this theory Cofan studied the flow characteristics within the pre-impregnated layer and systematically determined a layer offset positioning of 0.002” from the pocket should be established to prevent flow run off and contamination sourced defects. At the end of the fiscal year, Cofan was able to achieve a prototype capable of 85 Lumens/W with the combination of the technologies, however did not meet their overall target of 90+Lumens/W. Cofan has not been able to achieve acceptable consistency in adhering the reflective panels to the MCPCB. Additionally Cofan encountered a yield rate of 50%due to excessive positional tolerance offsets. Cofan plans to continue this project in the future. Cofan plans to continue work in the next fiscal year.